SCIENTIFIC-TECHNOLOGICAL REVOLUTION: A Suggests OF Enhanced Efficiency IN HUMAN Culture
Science and technology are critical equipment in man’s makes an attempt to exist, establish and acquire demand of his atmosphere. Ever given that the discovery of science and its application man has regularly manufactured endeavours to establish several technologies in purchase to conquer mother nature, recreate the planet for his simplicity and gains. Appropriate from the primitive situations, man invented bow and arrow, fireplace, hoes, knives, cutlass and so on, in purchase to offer with the existential challenges mother nature possesses. Even in the current planet, the endeavours of man are in totality geared towards the provision of foodstuff, clothing and shelter and other essential facilities for his survival.
Basically, man is ready to maneuver his way close to the cosmos and appear up with scientific discoveries since of his all-natural endowments. Man is naturally endowed with intelligence. He has the mental and all-natural ability to forge thoughts and the capacity to invent. The capacity to invent would make him a creator or an inventor. So, the application of science to day-to-day existence manifests in the several innovations of man vis-à-vis the technological developments in human culture. Science and technology, hence, are artificial innovations of man essentially place to use for his gains.
Man, Record OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY.
It is pertinent to mention that science does not exist outdoors the social cultural atmosphere of man. Man is the creator of science and the inventor of technology. In point, man could be regarded as the maximum expression of his atmosphere. The growth of science and technology is usually aimed at acquiring alternatives to particular existential challenges or challenges of mother nature within a certain socio–cultural atmosphere. Whilst the mother nature of science indicates an goal application to universal challenges and situations, which is a deductionist tactic to science we simply cannot, nonetheless, deny the point that it is at initially focused at working with particularistic instances within a presented atmosphere.
Traditionally, man has played a key part in the growth of science and technology. The human culture, no question, has long gone through a sequence of evolutions, transformations and as well as revolutions at just about every phase of its growth. In the early Greek time period, for occasion, philosophy, artwork and science attracted most vast unfold consideration. Science and artwork ended up section of philosophy. What existed nonetheless was speculative science. This was the time period the place Thales lived. He regarded as the initially notable philosopher and scientist in the western planet. He was the initially person to forecast an eclipse of the sun, which inevitably took spot in 585 B.C. His pupil, Anaximander, was the initially evolutionist scientist in the western planet. He held that all residing matters originated from the sea and began to establish in the training course of time into several sorts by implies of adaptation to their atmosphere. He held that man developed from the animals. Anaximander also held that the earth was not flat but like a cylinder in condition and is recognized to have manufactured the initially map in history. Pythagoras the mathematician, Democritus the atomists and Aristotle the finest scientist in Ancient Greece, all lived at this time period.(Omoregbe 2002, 177)
Faith and theology took the centre phase and grew to become the emphasis of interest in the middle ages. Ethics, literature and artwork characterized the renaissance age. Nonetheless, at the emergence of Francis Bacon who laid the basis for inductive product of science, the modern time period witnessed the growth of empirical and experimental science. This was the time period the place two notable doctrines emerged specifically, the Rene Descartes led Rationalism and the John Locke led Empiricism. But in the up to date time period the centre of interest has progressively shifted to science and technology. (Fadaunsi 1997, 58).
It is elementary to mention that the internal components and as well as man’s non complacency and his quest for know-how in each individual of the durations in the history of culture informed the shifts in the emphasis for growth.
Technological innovation is what we know as utilized science. It is the “systematic analyze of tactics for making and executing matters” (Gordon 1942, twenty). In a like head way, D.P Lauda and R.D Ryan (1971: fifty three) see technology as:
Man’s exertion to cope with his physical atmosphere both that offered by mother nature and t9hat designed by man’s personal technological deeds, such as cities and his makes an attempt to subdue or handle that atmosphere by implies of his creativity and ingenuity in the use of readily available methods.
Technological innovation is the application of the discoveries of science to make improvements to the situations of human existence. It is this application that success in innovations to make improvements to human welfare in several sectors of human existence. Disciplines like Engineering, Medicine, Data Technology, Electronics, Architecture, etcetera. are utilized sciences.(Omoregbe 2002, 179).
The history of technology extends as considerably as the ancestors of man. Technology grows and develops hand in hand with science. Equally of them compliment each individual other. The growth of several equipment when man was at the primitive phase in the history of culture is recorded to be the initially technological revolution. By the time of the Neanderthal Man, a degree of specialization in instrument making experienced been accomplished. The Cro–Magnon homosapiens mastered some mechanical ideas in pottery making and by the time period of the Neolithic Man, man experienced pretty sophisticated in instrument making crafts.(Ndubuisi 2002, 132).
By the sixteenth century, Francis Bacon advocated experimental science and recommended that researchers ought to analyze the methods of craftsmen. Technology ongoing to increase with growth of iron bridges, steam engines and textile machinery. This time period witnessed the complimentary roles of science with technology. For occasion, Edison, the inventor of the initially realistic lights utilised the scientific thoughts of Faraday and Henry, who experienced earlier experimented on electric power. Bell, the inventor of the phone also created it on the scientific thoughts of Helmholtz.(Ndubuisi 2002, 133).
There is no gainsaying the point that the revolution that requires spot in science and technology in human culture is by no mean feat. With the support of technology, man has been ready to place to use his thoughts of almost a fantastic, seamless culture with the support of several gadgets he develops for his gains. The planet today, particularly in this twenty first century, experiences economic and political growths as a end result of scientific and technological improvements. There are improvements and breakthroughs in the spots of ability and electrical power, transportation, interaction, drugs, architecture, agriculture, industry, military services technology, computer, place shuttles, biotechnology etcetera.
That development in science and technology has contributed to the enhancement of productiveness and enhanced economic expansion in human culture is an understatement. The point is apparent that science and technology has a significant interaction to productions in all sphere of human culture. The industrial revolution which occurred in Europe in the 18th century marked the beginning of an economic expansion and revolution. This industrial revolution confirmed a substantial social, economic, and technological adjust, which commenced with the introduction of steam ability, fuelled principally by coal. The technological and economic progresses recorded of the industrial revolution acquired momentum with the introduction of steam powered ships, boats and railways. Nonetheless, at the switch of the nineteenth century, the revolution unfold all over Western Europe and North The united states, and inevitably impacting the rest of the planet. (Wikipedia)
The situations subsequent the increased productiveness of labour characterized by the industrial revolution which experienced unfold across the planet led to the ‘second industrial revolution’ beginning close to 1870. This second industrial revolution step by step grew to include things like “the chemical industries, petroleum refining and distribution, electrical industries and the automotive industries“.(Ndubuisi 2002, 151). In point, the growing availability of economic petroleum products and solutions also reduced the utilization of coal to the possible for industrialization.
It is hence critical to mention that these industrial revolutions, which led to the formation of several big industrial organizations with often approximately, globalize worldwide operations and pursuits, paved the way for the successive scientific technological revolution that emerged in the forties and fifties. This scientific and technological revolution is as a result apparent in some nations around the world, like the disintegrated Soviet Union and the United States of The united states, pay a visit to to the moon during this time period. Nowadays, other nations around the world are subsequent suite. In September 2008, China launched her place shuttle and despatched a three man just one 7 days place delegation to the moon.
It can be seen from the foregoing that the indelible mark manufactured by the revolutions in science and technology has influenced the way man, of the modern age, perceives the planet. The scientific and technological revolution that has taken the planet by storm today stemmed from the industrial revolution of the 18th century. Kolawole Ogundowole (2003: 134) notes that:
In the initially 50 percent of the twentieth century especially during the 194s and 195s there ended up elementary shifts in the structure of most sciences and in the scientific activity as a end result of significant scientific and technical discoveries. This in switch led to an boost interaction of science with technology and output. Specifically, it was during that decade that mankind entered the time period of scientific and technological revolution.
Nowadays, the scientific and technological revolution is boosting productiveness of labour. It is changing the whole facial area of social product output. It evidently has a beneficial adjust in excess of the mother nature, situations and contents of labour as well as the composition of productive forces, the social division of labour, and the sectional and occupational structure of culture.
In his notion, Dryakhlov (1984: fifty five) defines scientific and technological revolution as:
The radical qualitative transformation and output forces done as a end result of the merger between the scientific and technological revolutions and the conversion of science into a immediate productive force.
This indicates that as just one of the essential ideas and regulations of dialectics, there exists in human developmental procedures, quantitative and qualitative changes. This affirms the materialist assertion that all the things develops from the transformation of quantity into high quality. So, scientific and technological revolution is a distinctive phenomenon connected with the conversion of science into immediate productive force of the culture, “the radical qualitative transformation of the structure of productive forces and the changes in the character and articles of human labour”. (Ogundowole 2003, 138).
With the evolution and growth of science and technology, it has turn out to be apparent that this revolution has enhanced output and use, particularly in the created nations around the world of the planet, past all expectations of the earlier. It is as a result attainable that poverty, starvation, and even unemployment on a significant scale would be a period of history. This is why V.G Afanasiev (2003: 139) notes that:
Science is the generator of thoughts: technology is their product, substantive embodiment when output is the region the place the operating of technology occurs, the place people use scientific and technological achievements to get hold of their vital product wealth.
At this juncture, it is pertinent to mention that the price of growth of science and technology and its startling achievements in almost just about every sphere of human existence, particularly as it boosts productiveness in human culture, is not without having its facet effects. Karl Marx was just one of these who pointed it the evil inherent in the industrialization process. Marx was not, nonetheless, from the growth of technology. But Marx considered that the industrialization process was the evil in the dialectical development of feudal economic modes, which led to the entire growth of capitalism. Marx admitted that the industrialization of the culture occurred, but it only led to the polarization of culture into two principal courses. Marx did not deny this industrialization, but was irritated at the exploitation that existed between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. In accordance to Marx (1972: 183):
Industrialization engenders the polarization of societies into two courses, the bourgeois these who personal the implies of output, i.e. the factories and the land, and the substantially greater proletarian doing the job class who basically conduct the labour vital to extract anything beneficial from the implies of output.
As a immediate effect of the scientific technological revolution, Marx opined that swift improvements in technology remaining numerous qualified personnel unemployed, as just one agricultural and producing process immediately after a further was mechanized. Once more, Marx pointed out that there ended up flights of tens of millions of unemployed people from rural spots or little towns to the significant cities as a end result of the look for for white collars positions. So, there was the growth of significant city population centers, which basically led to unprecedented situations of poverty in the slums that housed personnel for the new factories. At the same time, the bourgeoisie class, at only a little portion in comparison to the proletariat’s dimensions grew to become exceedingly rich.
As a remedy to this predicament of unequal distribution of wealth and sheer exploitation of the capitalist method, Marx asserted that the dialectical development, alone, is a vital precursor to the growth of socialism and inevitably communism. Marx (1972: 209) considered that:
The industrial proletariat will inevitably establish class consciousness and revolt from the bourgeoisie, main to a a lot more egalitarian socialist and inevitably communist state the place the personnel by themselves personal the implies of industrial output.
Marx may not be suitable with his belief that capitalism, which created as a end result of the industrialized technological improvements, would collapse and give way to socialism and eventual communism. The fact in our planet today exhibits that capitalism, as from socialism, strives and technology is advancing. But situations in latest time clearly show that development in technology has not solved most of the existential challenges in our planet. Developments in foodstuff/agricultural technology, for occasion, have not halted the scarcity of foodstuff. Taken that famine is prevalent in most producing nations around the world, citizens of the technological sophisticated nations around the world are also crying fowl with the significant charge of foodstuff things in their culture. In point the United Nations Organizations, early in the yr 2008, announced that the whole planet was likely through a huge foodstuff disaster.
In the same vein, improvements and revolution in science and technology did not end the economic economic downturn that occurred in the United States of The united states in 2008. In spite of its enhancements of productiveness, scientific and technological revolution did not end this economic economic downturn in the U.S which led to the loss of in excess of 800 thousand positions between January and September, 2008. The seven-hundred billion dollars economic bail out plan despatched by the erstwhile U.S president Bush and authorised by the legislature in Oct 2008 continues to be to be seen in assisting the economic switch close to of the place. Even the stimulus plan by the existing US president Obama has not manufactured sizeable contribution to the US economic system.
Likewise, the revolution in science and technology has not stopped the demise of a amount of tiny children in China in excess of the melamine contamination of the infant milk and other diary products and solutions. Consequently, in spite of its potentials in boosting productiveness, its effects on labour, human existence, work loss, could someday be devastating.
We simply cannot deny the superior that the improvements in science and technology have performed to man in pretty much just about every element of his existence. We simply cannot also rule out the point that man is the instrument of adjust in the scientific technological revolution. In purchase phrases, science and technological developments simply cannot be manufactured attainable without having man getting at the centre of its development and innovations. This would make B.M Kedrov and S. Shukhardin (2003: 139) contemplate that “scientific and technological revolution is an integral phenomenon encompassing the full ‘man–science–production’ method”.
We should nonetheless emphasize that science and technology is like a double–edge sword. It has both beneficial and damaging sides. Although its accomplishment has enormously enhanced the high quality of human existence, its damaging facet is really devastating to human existence.
Man faces critical danger of the damaging facet of technology in the spots of air air pollution, air pollution of seas and rivers, the depletion of the ozone layer, toxic squander, etcetera. The damaging effects of technology on mankind could also be seen in the spots of the manufacture of weapons of mass destruction, in certain the manufacture of chemical weapons, atomic bombs, organic and nuclear weapons.(Omoregbe 2002, 181).
The history of modern planet has revealed that effective nations around the world that have created these weapons of mass destruction are usually tempted to use it on weaker nations around the world. The atomic weapon of mass destruction utilised by the United States of The united states, during the Next World War, in excess of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan is however fresh new in our memory. This is why presumably most other nations around the world, like Iran, Korean, India etcetera., are producing nuclear weapons for by themselves in purchase to guard by themselves and wade off the threat of attack.
There are several other threats that the improvements and revolution in science and technology pose to mankind, but these damaging components of science and technology are not sufficient excuses to deny the apparent that almost most people wherever in the planet has benefited positively from it. It has enhanced man’s affliction of existence by making the necessities of existence, like foodstuff shelter clothing transportation interaction well being etcetera., a lot more easily readily available.
It is hence our position that the beneficial components that can be derived from the science and technology are of great value to man. Man should hence make certain that science and technology should be to his company and oriented towards human affairs. Man should prevent the mistaken utilization of technology as this may direct to his self destruction. The mistaken utilization of science and technology poses a lot more critical threats to planet peace which man has been seeking to achieve given that the beginning of the planet.
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Kedrov B.M and Shukhardin S. quoted from Kolawole Ogundowole (2003),
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