Modern issues in development of science and technology in nigeria
This paper examined different attempts that have been designed to establish science and technology because its introduction into the faculty procedure when the early Christian missionary arrived in Nigeria. The paper more mentioned diverse issues to the development of science and technology in Nigeria. Suggestions had been designed for its development in Nigeria.
Development of science and technology in Nigeria has not been encouraging because the introduction of sciences into faculty curriculum from the time of the early Christian missionary to Nigeria. Science educating in most Nigerian universities was just Character Review just before 1930 (Abdullahi, 1982). Nigerian has not reached substantially in science and technology and this is why we are continue to classified as creating country. The so referred to as made nations acquired their prosperity by scientific development (Abdullahi, 1982). Nation that is underdeveloped in science will not equally establish technologically because science and technology are together science deal with selection of facts by scientific procedures and technology utilizes the facts to discover remedies to realistic challenges.
Various attempts has been designed by different governing administration in Nigeria to establish science at any time just before independent a single of such is altered of the thought of Standard science as a topic to be made available up to the College Certification to such topics as biology, chemistry and physics. Afterwards development put enrolment in secondary faculty at ratio sixty:40 among Science and Arts topics. Just one big energy aimed at the development of science was the coming together of all science instructors in 1957 to inaugurate the Science Teachers’ Association of Nigeria (STAN). The association is worried with the educating of science by inquiry and discovery strategy in which students occur to fully grasp and establish science concepts by investigating and experimenting on their possess (Abdullahi, 1982).
Technical schools, Faculty of Arts, Science and Technology, Faculties of schooling Technical, Polytechnics and Universities of Technology had been all recognized in the country in a quest to establish science and technology. The procedure of schooling was altered from the a single inherited from our colonial master to six-three-three-4 procedure of schooling. In accordance to Rufai (2007) the six-three-three-4 plan is fundamental for the so substantially preferred technological breakthrough and the governing administration has designed her stand very clear by stating her commitment to scientific and technological development of the country. Equipment had been introduced from overseas nations around the world to be certain that this procedure worked and instructors had been despatched to abroad for more scientific tests to empower them suit in to the information procedure of schooling.
With all these attempts designed at creating science and technology and thinking of its worth to attaining self reliance of a country as explained by Adebayo (2001) that there is want for nations to establish scientifically and technologically because of the function it plays in attaining self reliance. There are continue to many issues to the development of science and technology in Nigeria that make her considerably behind other nations of the environment.
For science and technology to be made to meet the environment standard as it is in the made nations nowadays there ought to be sufficient resources to teach science at all amount of schooling. Ajileye (2006) opined that insufficient resources for educating and mastering of science constitute a big induce of students’ achievements. This insufficient source includes laboratories, science machines, and specimens made use of as educating aids. Development of science and technology can’t be divided from the top quality of scholar a country is producing from her universities.
Waziri (2002) noticed that millions of naira-worth of machines purchased for the development of introductory technology is continue to lying uninstalled thanks to deficiency of acceptable workshops and laboratories. Nations that do not have laboratories, science machines and specimens to teach students will absolutely deliver inadequate students in science and technology who are to become engineers and scientists tomorrow. An crucial source in the development of science and technology is experienced instructor. Waziri (2002) explained the shortage of experienced instructors for vocational- complex schooling programme brought on predominantly by inadequate payment as compared to the additional interesting opportunities in business and commerce.
Technical schools are not lengthier taken really serious many of these schools have been shut down because they deficiency students and commitment by the governing administration. These complex schools are extremely crucial for the schooling of skill craftsman and artisans that are extremely crucial to the technological development of any country.
Foundation of Science
Foundation is extremely crucial in any job and that is why there is want for a strong foundation for seem science schooling from most important faculty by good approach of educating and nicely construction curriculum. Akinola (2006) was of the view that students failed science because of teacher’s methodology and the structuring of the curriculum. Science educating is not taken really serious in many of our most important universities this helps make a class instructor who is not a properly trained science instructor to be educating science. It is only in secondary faculty we have instructors specialised in topic spots but in most important science instructors are ‘multipurpose’ which is extremely improper. What do you anticipate from a instructor who is a graduate of social scientific tests educating science in most important faculty? At his or her ideal would conclude up in destroying the scientific potential of the pupils. The conclusion is that a lousy scientific seed is planted and when it germinates we ought to not anticipate just about anything far better. In accordance to Oyedele (2007) science schooling is the ‘seed ‘to be planted if technological development is to be generated. He explained if Nigeria is to be amid the state-of-the-art societies of the environment, outfitted with fashionable technology of her possess creating, she ought to get ready her citizens for foreseeable future roles of predicating them on strong and seem science schooling. Nigeria young children are extremely good, clever and can compete with their counterpart in any aspect of the environment if they have good instructor who teaches with good approaches. In the view of Oyedele (2007) the average Nigerian child is able, clever and gifted in all spheres of daily life.
Excellent of Education and learning
The top quality of Nigerian schooling is inadequate thanks to inadequate leadership and corruption. Ogunwoye (2003) explained deficiency of instructor drive, recognition and reward direct to inadequate top quality of schooling. Nigeria governing administration do not price schooling and that mirror in their funds each and every yr. They gave extremely tiny allocation to schooling as compared to safety forgetting that schooling is capital intensive. They make insufficient fund available to invest in and preserved laboratories and workshop machines. Idris (2002) noticed deficiency of resources to procure needed spare sections to sustain the machines for complex schooling. The complications of our governing administration in accordance to Adedibu (2001) in formulating seem targets and ideal remedies to our challenges have resulted in the mismanagement of resources, improper arranging and misplaced of developmental priorities this has poorly influenced our academic procedure in the latest decades.
Nigerian culture is a big challenge to our development of science and technology. An average Nigerian do not have absolute self-confidence in any development designed by his or her fellow Nigerian in the area of science and technology because in accordance to Adedibu (2001) they have substantially regard for goods from other nations at the expense of domestically generated goods and this is having an adverse result on our technological development. Right until we learn to acknowledge and regard our indigenous energy in the area of science and technology and regard our Nigeria designed goods we may not make substantially development in science and technology. Some Nigerian had designed significance progress in medication specially in combating HIV/AIDS but because they are Nigerians nobody recognises their attempts but negatively criticized.
A further challenge to the development of science and technology in Nigeria is rivalry among different institutions specially among college and polytechnics (Katende, 2007). In which these institutions meant to function together as companions in progress to establish science and technology they are concentrating on which a single is remarkable in certification. In accordance to Mfon (2007) if the polytechnic, college, governing administration and other stakeholders function together in direction of research objectives, our march to technological and scientific breakthrough will be at sight.
Over dependence on overseas aids in type of technological transfer is a further challenge. In accordance to Adedibu (2001) technological transfer is a process of acquisition of complex schooling that can support a country complex development from other nations. The acquiring country is predicted to take care of, sustain, replicate and make improvements to on this technology by research devoid of the support of the providing country. Even so, Nigeria scenario is diverse we have been tied to the apron of the providing country. There is nothing lousy in technological transfer but the process ought to finish by prevent based on the providing country and this direct to our technological development.
Lack and insufficient use of instructional materials for educating and mastering of sciences in universities is a really serious challenge in most Nigerian universities. Kola (2007) explained the want for the use of instructional aids in educating physics in Nigerian universities can’t be overemphasized. The instructors are in excess of dependent on overseas designed or far better referred to as ‘already made’ apparatus, the vast majority do not have the potential to improvise for the benefit of their students. In accordance to Daniel (2001), instructors want to be uncovered to the generation and mastering components working with available resources specially at this age of information technology. The table down below demonstrate instructional materials utilizes for educating and mastering physics in two regional governing administration secondary universities in a point out in Nigeria.
Proportion of made use of (%)
Proportion not made use of (%)
Resource: Kola (2007).
Science and technology is extremely crucial to the advancement of a country and therefore its development ought to be giving a prominent situation in the governance of any country. It is noticeable from the over discussion that science and technology has not been nicely made thanks to issues that can be prevail over if we are determine to do so. Most of these issues are manmade issues that can be prevail over.
Due to the fact of the essential function of science and technology in the development of a country I will like to make the subsequent suggestion for its development in Nigeria.
It is crucial to get started the development of science from the most important faculty by the use of discovery approach of educating. This empower pupil appreciates science and also be artistic in their strategy to science fairly than the common exercise of memorization. Primary faculty instructors who are not science instructor ought to not be authorized to teach science as versus the present approach the place class instructors are designed to teach all topics in his or her class like science. Science instructors ought to be individual from other topics as it is done in secondary universities.
Science instructors ought to be inspired, motivated and send for more schooling in their area of scientific tests frequently. Attendance of seminar, conferences and workshops ought to type aspect of science teacher’s marketing at all stages.
Technical schools ought to be resuscitated in all point out of the country and governing administration ought to make plenty of resources available for the schooling of complex instructors each domestically and abroad. Resources ought to also be presented for the invest in of complex equipments and setting up of fashionable complex workshop.
Professionalism ought to be strictly adhere to in educating, it ought to not just be any individual that can go to classroom and teach, it ought to be professional instructors. This is crucial because of the approach of educating and accurate improvisation of science instructional components.
Nigerian ought to have regard, price and patronise our domestically designed goods governing administration ought to count it as a criminal offence for any one rejecting or disdain goods deliver in Nigeria.
Govt ought to bolster our research institutions to decrease country in excess of dependence on overseas aids and assistance to take care of, sustain, and replicate complex schooling bought from other nations fairly than continue to based on them after lengthy yrs of gotten it.
Finally our governing administration ought to make schooling to be initially in the nation’s funds as there is no country that can improve over the amount of her schooling.
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